IP Multicast, Volume II: Advanced Multicast Concepts And Large-Scale Multicast Design (Networking Te [UPD]
IP Multicast, Volume II thoroughly covers advanced IP multicast designs and protocols specific to Cisco routers and switches. It offers a pragmatic discussion of common features, deployment models, and field practices for advanced Cisco IP multicast networks, culminating with commands and methodologies for implementation and advanced troubleshooting.
IP Multicast, Volume II: Advanced Multicast Concepts And Large-Scale Multicast Design (Networking Te
After fully discussing inter-domain routing and Internet multicast, the authors thoroughly explain multicast scalability, transport diversification, and multicast MPLS VPNs. They share in-depth insights into multicast for the data center, a full chapter of best-practice design solutions, and a start-to-finish troubleshooting methodology designed for complex environments.
Josh Loveless CCIE No. 16638 is a systems engineering manager for Cisco Systems. He has been with Cisco since 2012 providing architecture and support services for tier 1 service providers as well as for many of Cisco''''s largest enterprise customers specializing in large-scale routing and switching designs. Prior to joining Cisco he spent 15 years working for large service providers and enterprises as both an engineer and an architect as well as providing training and architecture services to some of Cisco''''s trusted partners. Josh maintains two CCIE certifications Routing and Switching and Service Provider. Ray Blair CCIE No. 7050 is a distinguished systems engineer and has been with Cisco Systems since 1999. He uses his years of experience to align technology solutions with business needs to ensure customer success. Ray started his career in 1988 designing industrial monitoring and communication systems. Since that time he has been involved with server/database administration and the design implementation and management of networks that included networking technologies from ATM to ZMODEM. He maintains three CCIE certifications in Routing and Switching Security and Service Provider (No. 7050) and he is also a Certified Information Systems Security Professional (CISSP) and a Certified Business Architect (No. 00298). Ray is coauthor of three Cisco Press books Cisco Secure Firewall Services Module Tcl Scripting for Cisco IOS and IP Multicast Volume 1. He speaks at many industry events and is a Cisco Live distinguished speaker. Arvind Durai CCIE No. 7016 is a director of solution integration for Cisco Advanced Services. Arvind is a chief architect for advanced services for the West Enterprise Region an organization of around 100 consultants focused on customer success for approximately 150 enterprise accounts. Over the past 18 years Arvind has been responsible for supporting major Cisco customers in the enterprise sector including financial retail manufacturing e-commerce state government utility and health care sectors. Some of his focuses have been on security multicast network virtualization data center enterprise cloud adoption automation and software-defined infrastructure and he has authored several white papers on various technologies. He has been involved in multicast designs for several enterprise customers in different verticals. He is also one of the contributors to the framework for the Advanced Services Multicast Audit tool which helps customers assess their operational multicast network to industry best practices. Arvind maintains two CCIE certifications Routing and Switching and Security and also is a Certified Business Architect. He holds a bachelor of science degree in electronics and communication a master''''s degree in electrical engineering and a master''''s degree in business administration. He has coauthored four Cisco Press books: Cisco Secure Firewall Services Module Virtual Routing in the Cloud Tcl Scripting for Cisco IOS and IP Multicast: Volume 1. He has also coauthored IEEE WAN smart grid architecture and presented in many industry forums such as IEEE and Cisco Live.
PIM Sparse Mode (PIM-SM) is a multicast routing protocol designed on the assumption that recipients for any particular multicast group will be sparsely distributed throughout the network. In other words, it is assumed that most subnets in the network will not want any given multicast packet. In order to receive multicast data, routers must explicitly tell their upstream neighbors about their interest in particular groups and sources. Routers use PIM Join and Prune messages to join and leave multicast distribution trees.
PIM Dense Mode (PIM-DM) is a multicast routing protocol designed with the opposite assumption to PIM-SM, namely that the receivers for any multicast group are distributed densely throughout the network. That is, it is assumed that most (or at least many) subnets in the network will want any given multicast packet. Multicast data is initially sent to all hosts in the network. Routers that do not have any interested hosts then send PIM Prune messages to remove themselves from the tree.
Routing TCP/IP, Volume II, expands upon the central theme of Volume I: scalability and management of network growth. Volume II moves beyond the interior gateway protocols covered in Volume I to examine both inter-autonomous system routing and more exotic routing issues such as multicasting and IPv6. This second volume follows the same informational structure used effectively in Volume I: discussing the topic fundamentals, following up with a series of configuration examples designed to show the concept in a real-world environment, and relying on tested troubleshooting measures to resolve any problems that might arise. This book helps you accomplish more than earning the highly valued CCIE number after your name; it also helps you develop the knowledge and skills that are essential to perform your job at an expert level. Whether you are pursuing CCIE certification, need to review for your CCIE recertification exam, or are just looking for expert-level advice on advanced routing issues, Routing TCP/IP, Volume II, helps you understand foundation concepts and apply best practice techniques for effective network growth and management.
When we switch focus away from multiprocessors to multicomputers, thefundamental difference is that the processing elements no longer have accessto the same shared memory system. Since computers need to communicate, an alternatecommunication mechanism is needed. This mechanism is the networkinterconnect. As with multiprocessors, the network interconnect may bebus-based or switched. A bus-based interconnect means that all systems areconnected to the same communications bus and can see all the traffic on thenetwork. The original design of the Ethernet was bus-based. Today, it isgenerally not seen on local area networks as switches are cost-effective.A switched interconnect allows any pair of computersto communicate without affecting the bandwidth of other systems: it providesscalable bandwidth.Ethernet switches simulate some the behavior of a bus-based network to allowthings like network broadcasts and multicasts to work.
IP multicasting is designed, like IP, to span multiple physical networks.Membership is dynamic: a machine can join or leave a multicast group at any time.Moreover, there is no central coordinator and no restriction on the numberof hosts that can be in a group. Multicasting provides network efficiency.Packets in a multicast stream only need to be replicated when a router needsto send them to multiple network links. Only one stream of packets is neededon any network segment regardless of the number of receivers.
Routers have to get involved to support multicasting beyond the local area network.Two protocols are used to implement multicasting.The Internet Group Management Protocol(IGMP) is designed for hosts to inform the routers on their LAN thatthey are interested in joining a multicast group.The Protocol Independent Multicast (PIM)protocol enables routers to tell their neighboring routers that theyare, or are no longer, interested in receiving packets for a particularmulticast group.
Dense Mode multicast, also known as flooding, originatesfrom the multicast sender. The message is duplicated and sent to all connected routers. Each of those routers,in turn, duplicates and sends the message to all of its connected routers, and so on.To avoid routing loops, each router uses reverse path forwarding (RFP).A received packet is forwarded only if it was received via the link that the routerknows is the shortest path back to the sender (it finds this by checking its forwarding table,which is what it would use if it was sending a packet to that address).PIM Dense Mode floods the entire network of connected multicast-aware routers.
The virtual synchrony framework tracks group membership. Over time, themembership of a process group may change. Processes may be added and processes mightleave (e.g., a computer may crash).This change of membership is called a view change.Any processes in the system should be made awareof this change since future multicasts will have to be sent to the new group view.Message delivery should not span a view change. That is, if a view change takes placewhile a message was being multicast, that message should be delivered toall the processes in the group before the view change message is delivered to any member.